# the majority of the studies including women are invalid > The validity of studies, or lack thereof, in sport and exercise science using women as participants is rarely discussed.[[(Elliott-Sale et al., 2021)#^zth6j]] > At present, given the lack of clarity on either the direction or magnitude of potential effects of ovarian steroids on physical performance, maximising internal validity should be considered a research priority. The external validity of studies involving women as participants is often more difficult to increase due to the large inter and intra-individual variability in ovarian hor- mone concentrations; by reducing some of this variation through precise recruitment and testing, the external valid- ity is lessened, and thus generalisability is reduce[[(Elliott-Sale et al., 2021)#^t1t2a]] %% Add in validity information from MTE