# males are studied more than females even in mixed sex studies > Encouragingly, two-thirds of studies involving human participants are mixed-sex studies, and whereas there remains a broad imbalance within many studies, suggesting the need for further change, when all human studies in all fields are combined the average ratio is 57%:43% (male:female)[[(O’Halloran, 2020)#^sh791]] > Mixed-sex studies of exercise, cardiovascular and muscle physiology are male dominant, with notable exceptions[[(O’Halloran, 2020)#^d9auq]]